The Fedora Project has several documented methods for preparing a live USB.
As of Fedora 34, the only official and supported method for creating a Fedora USB stick is the Fedora Media Writer utility. But, for my own reasons, I'll use the command line utility
Read the instructions for the direct write method in the official guide before doing anything in this post. My post is not a replacement for the complete instructions. It's meant to share a method and extend the docs for those who know what they're doing.
dd (the direct write method) is documented but all command line methods are explicitly not supported.
And Fedora's instructions (unlike those of Elementary OS) don't segment by the operating system on which you're creating the live USB. So, (assuming) these docs are Linux-specific and as I'm on Apple's MacOS Catalina 10.15.x, I'll probably have errors. This post is to document my errors and fixes.
To replace the generic parts of the command with parameters that will work for your system and your intent, one needs to follow the official docs. Because I don't go into details here.
Alright then, you've been warned. Let's get on with it. The unsupported generic command from the docs is:
# dd if=/path/to/image.iso of=/dev/sdX bs=8M status=progress oflag=direct
Use the official docs to customize with the part to the correct disk. Be careful! The
of flag tells
dd where to write, and you could overwrite any storage disk on your system if you're not careful.
Running the documented command gives me the first of several errors.
dd: bs: illegal numeric value
Fix: Change the
dd: unknown operand status
Fix: The flag
status is not recognized, so remove. You just won't see writing progress made by
dd when you run the command. But as long as there's no error, and the command prompt hasn't reappeared, the write is happening.
dd: unknown operand oflag
Fix: Likewise, the flag
oflag is also not recognized. This is also removed.
dd: /dev/disk3: Operation not permitted
So what parts of the document command remain?
ddto write output to file, instead of the standard output. This is what we use to point at the USB disk.
ddto set both input and output block size to 8m bytes. I'll bump that to 16m, to increase the number of bytes that are read and written at one time.
- I added
syncto flush the cash by forcing completion of pending disk writes.
So, this is the command that worked for me on MacOS Catalina 10.15.x:
sudo dd if=/path/to/image.iso of=/dev/sdX bs=16m && sync